MS Harley 5401

Digital text and notes by Sam Wallace

Special thanks: Transcription of original text used with gracious permission from Constance Hieatt

Version 04-09-2011

(c) You may use this digital version for scholarly, private and non-profit purposes. Please make sure that you do not violate copyright laws of your country. Do not remove this header from the file.

To make Nowmbyls of Muskyls. Seth muskyls, & then shop þam grete & medil þam with almonde mylk, & make a thyk potage; & colour it with saferon. With kokyls or with pervinches ȝe may do þe same. To make Numbles of Mussels. Boil mussels, and then chop them large and mix them with almond milk, and make a thick stew; and color it with saffron. You may do the same with cockles or periwinkles.

Numbles (umbles) = Inner organs used in food, typically used in connection with deer.


Personal opinion of the translator: This dish is vile!

For Qualing of Mylk. Cast þerto a litil flour & styre it wele. For Quailing Milk. Throw in a little flour and stir it well

Quail = to curdle - (OF. coaillier, F. cailler, from L. coagulare)


Blawnched Mortrovs. Recipe almond mylk or cow mylk & floure of rice, of amidon, & of wastell, & drawe it thrughe a cloth with sum of þe mylk, & lat it boyle to it be standyng; & put þerto hony, & þan dress a lech of þat one blaunched morterus, anoþer of þat saferon, etc. White Mortrew. Gather almond or cow milk and rice flour, starch, and fine wheat bread, and draw it through a cloth with some of the milk; and put in honey, and then dress a slice of that one white mortrew, another of that saffron, et cetera.

Per the Medieval Cookery site, this recipe shows up as “mortrews” or “mortus” in other cooking documents.

Wastell (wastel) = fine wheat bread.

Mortrew (mortress) = A dish of meats and other ingredients, cooked together; an ollapodrida. Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary. In this case, the recipe seems to refer to the sauce

Similar recipe

And another

Collection of similar recipes

Morterous for Lentyn. Recipe brothe of congure or of merlyng, sothen of cuper of kongur or of codlynge, & graty þam in a morter with grated brede; & alay it vp with þe brothe til it be standing; & put it in a pot with peper & saferon & boyl þam a litil, & dresse þam, & do þeron powdyr of gynger serof it forth. Lenten Mortrew. Gather conger or whiting broth, boil kipper, conger or small cod, and grate them in a mortar with grated bread; and mix it up with the broth until it is thick; and put it in a pot with pepper and saffron and boil them a little, and dress them, and put ginger powder on it, serve it forth. Merlyng - whiting
Heraldry of Fish: Notices of the Principal Families Bearing Fish in Their Arms, Thomas Moule
Ryse Lumbard Rynnyng. Recipe ryse & pyke þam wele, & wesh þam in .iii. or .iiij. waters, & than seth þam in clene water til þai begyn to boyle. And at þe fyrst bolyng put oute þe water & seth it in broth of flesh, & put þerto sugyre & colour it with saferon, & serof it forth. Running Lumbard Rice. Gather rice and pick it well, and wash it in 3 or 4 rinses, and then boil it in clean water until it begins to boil. And at the first [sign of] boiling put out the water and boil it in a meat broth, and put in sugar and color it with saffron, and serve it forth.


Rise Lombard Standyng. Recipe & make þam in þe same manere, safe take perto brothe of flesh, salmon, or congyr; & cast berto powdre of canel, & make peron lyure of brede as it is aforesaide. Thick Lumbard Rice. Gather and make it in the same manner, save put in meat, salmon, or conger broth; and throw in powdered cinnamon, and put a layer of bread on it as it says above.
Berleggs. Recipe creme of almonds & alay it with floure of ryse, & cast þerto gyngere; & lat it boyle & stir it wele, & colour it with saferon & sawndyres; & make it standing, & dress it vp in lechys, & in dyshes seroff it forth. Berleggs. Gather almond cream and mix with rice flour, and throw in ginger; and let it boil and stir it well, and color it with saffron and saunders; and make it thick, and dress it up in slices, and serve it forth in dishes.
Charlet Enforesyd. Recipe swete mylk and egges ȝolkes & ale, & seth pork withoute erbis, brayed, & lat it boyle tyll it do crud; and colour it with saferon, & þan take it vp & press it. þan take creme of almondes or of kow mylk & boyle itt, & put þerto ginger & colour it depe with saferon, & lay þerof .iij. lechis or .v. in a dysh of þe charlet & poure þe [c]reme apon it; and medyl sugure, sawndyrs, & masz togydere & strew it þeron & serof it forth. Farced Charlet. Gather fresh milk and egg yolks and ale, and boil pork without herbs, grind, and let it boil until it curldles; and color it with saffron, and then take it up and press it. Then take almond or cow milk cream and boil it, and put in ginger and color it deeply with saffron, and lay 3 or 5 slices of this in a dish of the charlet and pour the cream upon it, and mix sugar and saunders, and mash together and strew it on it and serve it forth. Charlet - a dish of flesh with milk
Creme Bolyd. Recipe creme of kow mylk & egg ȝolkes, sugur & saferon, & medyl all togyder; & bole it til it be standyng, & dresse it vp in a dysh in lechys, & playnt it with flowres of borage. Boiled Cream. Gather cream of cow milk and egg yolks, sugar and saffron, and mix all together; and boil it until it is thick, and dress it up in a dish in slices, and garnish with borage flowers.
Chewets. Recipe þe draghtis of capons or of hennes & shop þam small. Take & cast powdyr of gynger & cloes, pepyr & salt, & put þam all in a lityll cofyn & close it abowne, & fry hym in fresh grece, & serrof þam forth .ij. in a dysch. Chewets. Gather capon or hen leftovers and chop them small. Take and cast powdered ginger and cloves, pepper and salt, and put them all in a little coffin and close around, and fry it in fresh grease, and serve them forth 2 in a dish.

Draghtis (sing. Draght) – litterally the pulls - what has been pulled from the bone.

Coffin – pastry crust

Chewetys. Make smale cofyns not so mykyll as penypines, & take fayre egg ȝolks tryed, & lay þam in a cofyn .iij. or .iiij. rawe; & take fayre mary. When it is perbolid in þe boynes take it oute & lay it in gobits in a cofyn, & take a litil sugur & salt & cast þerin, & take a lid & cover it, & fry þam in fresh grece: & loke þi fyr be noght to hote; & serof it forth .iij. in a dysh. Chewets. Make small coffins not so large as pinchpennies, and take fair, seperated egg yolks, and lay 3 or 4 of them raw in a coffin; and take fair many. When it is parboiled in the bones take it out and lay it in gobbets in a coffin, and take a little sugar and salt and throw it in, and take a lid and cover it, and fry them in fresh grease; and do not let the fire be to hot; and serve it forth 3 in a dish.

Tryed (tried) – from context "seperated"

Penypines – Pinchpennies. The meaning is unclear from context.

Mary – Possible transcription error. It does not seem to make as much sense to say “take fair mary” as it does to say “take fair many.”

Flawnes for Lentyn. Recipe gode floure & make past, & take gode mylk of almondes & þe floure of ryse or of amydon & boyle þam togyder till þai be wele chargeand; & when it is bolyd thyk take it vp & lay it on a fote bord til it be colde; & when þe cofyns be redy, take a part & do it in þe cofyns & karve þam in shyves, & do þam in gode mylk of almonds, & fyges & dates, in .iiij. pertyes. þen bak it; serof it forth. Flans for Lent. Gather good flour and make paste, and take good almond milk and rice flour or starch and boil them together until they are well laden; and when it is boiled thick take it up and lay it on a foot board until it is cold; and when the coffins are ready, take a part and put it in the coffins and carve them in slices, and put them in good almond milk, and figs and dates, in 4 parts. Then bake it; serve it forth. Fote bord – foot board – A board or small raised platform on which to support or rest the feet, as in a carriage. Here, used as a trivet.
To make Chese Nesh at is Ouer Hard. Lay þe chese lappyd all about in fayr grene nettyls. And lat it ly styll on a fayre borde or on a floore, and within fow[r] dayes it schall be nesgh & fresh. To make Soft Cheese that is “Too Daring.” Lay the cheese in a fair green nettle wrap. And let it lay still on a fair board on the floor, and within four days it shall be soft and fresh.

“Nesh at is Ouer” – possible transcription error of “þat”

“Ouer Hard” seems to be a play on words. “Nesh” means “soft, while Over Hard relates to “ofer-hardi,” or “overhardi,” meaning “too bold.”
A Middle-English Dictionary

Potage of Prvnes. Recipe prvnes & wesh þam clene, & frote þam wele in a cop tyll þe juyse be wele wrong oute; þan do it in a pot & put þerto whyte grece & hony or sugure, & boyle it togyder, & thyk it with þe floure of rise or of wastylls. And when it is sothen dress it vp in dyshys, & cast þeron powdyr of galyngay, & serof it forth. Stewed Prunes. Gather prunes and wash them clean, and rub them well in a cup until the juice is well wrung out; then put it in a pot and put in white grease and honey or sugar, and boil it together, and thicken it with rice flour or with breadcrumbs. And when it is boiled dress it up in dishes, and throw galingale powder on it, and serve it forth.
Mylk Rostede. Recipe swete mylk & do it in a pan, than take þe egges with þe whyte & bete þam togyder, & do it to þe mylk, & colour it with saferon; & boyle it tyll it be thyk, and strene it & do þerin; take þat þat levis in þe strenerour: presse it on a borde with a lever, & when it is cold lard it & sheve it on shyves, & rost it on a gyrdyryn, & serof it forth. Roasted Milk. Gather sweet milk and put it in a pan, then take eggs with the white and beat them together, and put it in the milk, and color it with saffron, and boil it until it is thick, and strain it and put it in; take the leaves in the strainer: press it on a board with a lever, and when it is cold lard it and shave it in slices, and roast it on a gridiron, and serve it forth.
Cawdale þat is Part of Blawmaunger. Recipe flesch of capons or of pork & stamp it small; & temper it with þe broth of þe saym, that it be wele chargeand as þe blawmanger, with wyne or with vinegre or with creme of almondes; & grind egges & saferon togider so þat it be ȝalow, & strew þeron powdyrs of galingay, & stik þerin clows & maces, & serof it forth. Caudle that is Part of Blancmange. Gather capon or pork meat and stamp it small; and temper it with broth of the same, that it is as well laden as the blancmange, with wine or with vinegar or with almond cream; and grind eggs, and strew with galangal powder, and stick cloves and mace in, and serve it forth.
Resalsike. Recipe fygys & rasyns, & do away þe kyrnels, & a gode pert of apylls paryd, & bray þam wele; & temper þam with almondes mylk, & meng it with þe flowre of ryse þat it be wele chargeant; & strew þeron podyr of galingay. Resalsike. Gather figs and raisins, and do away [with] the kernels, and a good part of pared apples, and crush them well; and temper them with almond milk, and mix it with rice flour until it is well laden, and strew it with galangal powder. Resalsike - Possible transcription error. “Reȝal” means “rule” or “royal” and “sike” meant “trench.”
Fruays. Recipe þe cromys of whyte brede & swete aplys & ȝolkes of egges, & bray þam wele, & temper it with wyne; & make it to sethe, & when it is thyk do þerto gode spyces: gynger & galingay & cannell & clows; & serof it forth. Fruays. Gather White breadcrumbs and sweet apples and yolks of eggs, and grind it well, and temper it with wine; and boil it, and when it is thick add spices: ginger and galangal and cinnamon and cloves; and serve it forth.
And þu wyll make a Faireseour in a Poket of a Pike. Recipe þe poket of þe pike & wesch it clene, & scrape it, þe pike & shop it small, & grind it wele, & cast þerto podyr of galyngay & of gynger & clows, salt & saferon; & fyll þe pokutt full & boyle it wele, & serof it forth. And you will make a Stuffing in a Pocket of a Pike. Gather the pocket of a pike and wash it clean, and scrape it, the pike and chop it small, and grind it well, and throw in powdered galangal and ginger and cloves, salt and saffron; and fill the pocket full and boil it well. Faireseour - “Farce,” a ground up dish or stuffing.
For to make Soopys. Recipe fyne almond mylk standyng, & colour it with safron and a porcyon of hony; þen take shyves of brede tostyd & wete þam in whyte wyne or rede, & dresse þe shyves in a dysh, & boyle in a lityll of þe mylk, & cast þeron, & strew þeron sugure, & serof. To make Sops. Gather fine thick almond milk, and color it with safron and a portion of honey, then take slivers of toasted bread and wet them in white or red wine , and dress the slivers in a dish, and boil in a little of the milk, and cast thereon, and strew sugar thereon, and serve.
To make a Balowbroth. Recipe pikes & splate þam on brede, or els if þu have; stokfysh, if þu list, þu may smyte þam in gobyts; & seth þam, half in wyne & half in water; þan tak vp þe fysh & kepe it warme, & draw þe broth throgh a cloth, & do þerto powder of gynger & of galingay, pepyur, cannell; þan lat þe broth boyle & do þerin þe fysh, & serof. To make a Balowbroth. Gather pikes and split them on bread, or else if you have, stockfish, if you please, you may smite them in gobbets, and sethe them in half wine and half water, then take up the fish and keep it warm, and draw the broth through a cloth, and add powdered ginger and galangal, peper; then let the broth boil and put the fish in and serve.

Balowbroth, syn balloc broth or balok-broth
Wright, Thomas, Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial English, H. G. Bohn, 1857). The definition is a simple restatement of the balloc broth recipe in A Form of Cury. It should be noted that ballow is given as gaunt or thin while a balow is a spirit, probably an evil one.

Stockfish – fish, such as cod or haddock, cured by splitting and drying in the air

To make Doth. Recipe cow mylk & lye þais in wastell brede, & colour it with saferon; fors it with pepyr & gynger & clows, & bole it with hard sodyn egges, & seth it with hony & sugure, & serof. To make Doth. Gather cow milk and lay them in fine wheat bread, and color it with saffron; stuff it with pepper and ginger and cloves, and boil it with hard boiled eggs, and seethe it with honey and sugar, and serve.
To make Amydon. Recipe whete & stepe it ix dayes, & change þe water every day twyes; than bray it in a morter right small, & clens it throgh a haryn syve, & lat it stonde tyll it be sett; þen put onto þe morter & bray it in a clothe to it be dry. To make Amidon. Gather wheat and steep it 9 days, and change the water every day twice, then grind it in a mortar very small, and clense it through a hair sieve, and let it stand until it sets, then put into the mortar and grind it in a cloth until it is dry
Gely of Fysh. Recipe tench or pykes, elys, turbot, or place, & cut þam in pecis. Skald þam & wesh þam & dry þam with a clothe, & do þam in a pann, & do þerto half vinegre & half wyne, & seth þam wele; & take vp þe fysh & pike þam smale & take þe broth & cole it throgh a clothe into an erthyn pan, & do þerto powdyr of pepyr & saferon. Then lat it sethe & scom it wele, & lay þi fysh in chargours & cole þe sew, & put it in dyshys & serof. Jelly of Fish. Gather tench or pikes, eels, turbot, or plaice, and cut them in pieces. Scald them and wash them and dry them with a cloth, and put them in a pan, and put thereto half vinegar and half wine, and seethe them well; and take up the fish and pick them small and take the broth and cull it through a cloth into an earthen pan, and put thereto powder of pepper and saffron. Then let it seethe and skim it well, and lay the fish in charger and cull the stew, and put it in dishes and serve.
Cawdeyle of Muskyls. Recipe muskyls & seth þam, & pike þam clene, & wesh þam vp with wyne. Take almondes & bray þam, & take a fone of þe muskyls grunde with þe fysh broth, & wring vp þe mylk with þe broth of þe muskyls; & do all þies togyder & put þerto vergeious & vinegre. Then take þe whyte of lekes perboled & hev þam small, & do þerto plenty of powdyrs & saferon & salt, & seth it not to standyng, & þen serof it forth. Caudle of Mussels. Gather mussels and seethe them, and pick them clean, and wash them up with wine. Take almonds and grind them, and take a few of the mussels ground with the fish broth, and wring out the milk with the broth of the mussels; and put all this together and put thereto verjuice and vinegar.
Gaude Grene. Recipe þe lyver of codlyng & þe gutts of þe saide codlyng & dice þam, & seth þam in water; þen make a lyur of brede with þe same broth, & colour it with grene, & do þerto strong powdyr, comyn, & salt, & serof it forth. Gaudy Green. Gather the liver of codling and the guts of the said codling and dice them, and seethe them in water; then make a layer of bread with the same broth, and color it with green, and put thereto strong powder, cummin, and salt, and serve it forth.
Ryce Mole. Recipe almonds & blanche þam, & draw þam vp with water, & lay it vp with floure of rice; & do þerto powdyr of gyngere, sugyr, & salt so þat it be standyng; & serof it forth. Rice Mold. Gather almonds and blanch them, and draw them up with water, and lay it up with flour of rice; and put thereto powder of ginger, sugar, and salt so that it is thick; and serve it forth.
Viandre Cypyre de Salmon. Recipe & bray almonds vnblaunched; þan take caluer salmon & seth it in water, & draw vp þinne almonds mylk with þe broth of þe salmon. þan pike out þe bonys clene, & grind it small, & cast þi mylk & þat togyder, & ley it with floure of rice, & seth it; & þan do þerto strong powdyr, sugure & salt, & colour it with alkenet so þat it be standyng, & serof it forth. Cyprus Viand of Salmon. Gather and grind unblanched almonds; then take fresh salmon and seethe it in water, and draw up then almond milk with the broth of the salmon then pick out the bones clean and grind it small, and cast the milk and that together, and lay it with flour of rice, and seethe it and then put thereto strong powder, sugar and salt, and color it with alkanet so that it is thick, and serve it forth.
Laumpray in Galantyne. Recipe a lampray & sla hym with wyne & salt, & skald hym in wature & salt, & cut a lityl at þe navyll & take oute þe gut & þe eyghener, & kepe þe blode; þan rost hym on a spyt, & kepe wele þe grece; þan grind rasyns o[f] curans & draw þam vp with whyte wyne & vynegre & with crusts of brede, & do þerto powder of gynger & of galyngale, floure of rice, powdyr of canell, clows & macis, & ras[yns] [of] corance hole, with þe blode & grece of þe lampray. Cast salt þerto; bole it not to standyng & lay þe sewe aboue, & serof it forth. Lamprey in Galentine. Gather a lamprey and slay him with wine and salt, and scald him in water and salt, and cut a little at the navel and take out the gut and the vent, and keep the blood, then roast him on a spit, and keep well the grease then grind raisins of currants and draw them up with white wine and vinegar and with crusts of bread, and put thereto powder of ginger and of galingale, flour of rice, powder of cinnamon, cloves and mace, and whole raisins of currants, with the blood and grease of the lamprey. Cast salt thereto; boil it not too thick and lay the stew above, and serve it forth.
To mak a Cawdell in Capon Broth. Recipe fayr capons broth & wastell brede or whyte brede, & stvewe it as þu wald make þerof a sew, & colour it wele with saferon; & þan when þe sew is bolyd set it fro þe fyre, þen take a gode porcyon of egges ȝolkes & strene þam & let þe eggs ryn in to þe sew, & styre it wele til it be smoth & rynnyng, & þan take þe fat of þe capon broth or of pestell of pork & do þerto, & serof it forth. To make a Caudle in Capon Broth. Gather fair capon's broth and fine wheat bread or white bread, and stew it as you would make thereof a stew, and color it well with saffron, and then when the stew is boiled set it from the fire, then take a good portion of eggs' yolks and strain them and let the eggs run in to the stew, and stir it well until it is smooth and running, and then take the fat of the capon broth or of pig's feet and put thereto, and serve it forth.
Muskyls Broth. Recipe muskyls & seth þam in water to þai go owte of þe shels; þan put a part of þe broth to whyte brede & þe remland put onto þe grondes; þan pike þi muskyls, þan put into þe broth mynesid onyons, & let it seth; þen put in þi muskyls to bole, and do þerto pepyr & saferon, & put þerto þi lyure etc. Mussels Broth. Gather mussels and seethe them in water to they go out of the shells; then put a part of the broth to white bread and the remainder put onto the grounds; then pick the mussels, then put into the broth minced onions, and let it seethe; then put in the mussels to boil, and put thereto pepper and saffron, and put thereto the layer etc.
Gruell Forsyd. Recipe pork & seth it, & when it begyns to aly take oute part of þat broth & take out pork, & stren þe broth; þen put in otemele small, or else paynmain; þan colour it with saferon, & serof it forth. Stuffed Gruel. Gather pork and seethe it, and when it begins to aoften take out part of that broth and take out [the] pork, and strain the broth; then put in small oatmeal, or else [the] finest bread; then color it with saffron, and serve it forth
To make a Frose. Recipe pork & seth it, & when it is half sothen chop it small, & take egges & swyng þam; þan put þat pork with þe egges & fry þam in fayre grece. To make a Frose. Gather pork and seethe it, and when it is half seethed chop it small, and take eggs and stir them then put that pork with the eggs and fry them in fair grease Frose – Webster’s lists this as “a kind of pancake”
And if it be Fyshday. Recipe trutys or barbels or molets with such egges swung & fayr buttyr; fry þam & serof. And if it is [a] Fishday. Gather trouts or barbels or mullets with such eggs swung and fair butter, fry them and serve
To make Gynger Sawce. Recipe whyte brede & stepe it in vinegre, & strene it throgh a cloth, & put on powdyr of gynger & salt, & serof. To make Ginger Sauce. Gather white bread and steep it in vinegar, and strain it through a cloth, and put on powder of ginger and salt, and serve
To make Potage of Ostyrs. Recipe ostyrs & perbole þam in fayr water, þan tak þam oute; þan schop þam small & bray þam in a morter; þan cast þam into þat same broth & put þerto almond mylk & amydon & myncyd onyons & bole all þise togydre; þan put in powdyr of gynger & colour it with saferon, & serof it forth. To make Pottage of Oysters. Gather oysters and parboil them in fair water, then take them out; then chop them small and grind them in a mortar; then cast them into that same broth and put thereto almond milk and amidon and minced onions and boil all this together; then put in powder of ginger and color it with saffron, and serve it forth.
Fruturs of Fygis. Recipe & make bature of flour, ale, peper & saferon, with oþer spices; þan cast þam in to a frying pann with batur & ole & bake þam & [serof]. Fritters of Figs. Gather and make batter of flour, ale, pepper and saffron, with other spices; then cast them in to a frying pan with batter and oil and bake them and [serve].
Charlet. Recipe pork & seth it wele, & hew it small & cast it in a pan, & breke egges þerto & swyng all togydyre; & put þerto þe mylk of a kow & saferon, & bole it togydere, & salt it & serof. Charlet. Gather pork and seethe it well, and hew it small and cast it in a pan, and break eggs thereto and stir all together; and put thereto the milk of a cow and saffron, and boil it together, and salt it and serve.
Jussell. Recipe brede gratyd & egges & swyng þam togydere, & do þerto sawge & saferon & salt; þan take gode broth & cast it þerto, & bole it enforesayd, & do þerto as to charlete, & serof. Jussell. Gather grated bread and eggs and stir them together, and put thereto sage and saffron and salt; then take good broth and cast it thereto, and boil it stuffed, and put thereto as to charlet, and serve.
Cherysse. Recipe almonds vnblaunched & wesh þam clene, and grynd þam & draw þam vp with gode broth, & do þerto þe thyrd part of þe cherysse, þe stonys pikyd oute, & grynd þam small; & make a lyure of whyte brede & of powdyrs & do þerto salt & colour it with sawndyrs so þat it be standyng, & mese it forth with anneys & with cherys. Cherries. Gather unblanched almonds and wash them clean, and grind them and draw them up with good broth, and put thereto the third part of the cherries, the stones picked out, and grind them small; and make a layer of white bread and of powders and put thereto salt and color it with saunders so that it be thick, and serve it forth with anise and with cherries.
Sopis de Roy. Recipe almonds & bray þam, & wryng þam oute with wyne, & þan cast þerto saferon & salt. Take brede & lay it in wyne; lay a layu of þe brede & put on þe mylk, & so forth tyl þow have enohw; þen florish it with sugyre & powdyr of gynger & serof it forth. King’s Sops. Gather almonds and grind them, and wring them out with wine, and then cast thereto saffron and salt. Take bread and lay it in wine; lay a layer of the bread and put on the milk, and so forth until you have enough; then flourish it with sugar and powder of ginger and serve it forth.
Cawdell of Almonds. Recipe almondes blaunched & bray þam & draw þam vp with wyne, & do þerto powdyr of gynger & sugur, & bole it, & cast þerto a lityll salt, etc. Caudle of Almonds. Gather blanched almonds and grind them and draw them up with wine, and put thereto powder of ginger and sugar, and boil it, and cast thereto a little salt, etc.
Cald Brewyt. Recipe creme of almonds, & dry it vpon a cloth, and when it is dry do it in a boll, & do þerto salt & sugur with þe powdyr of gynger & þe juse [of] [fen]nell with wyne, & let it stand by þe fenell, & mese it forth. Cold Brewet. Gather cream of almonds, and dry it upon a cloth, and when it is dry put it in a bowl, and put thereto salt and sugar with the powder of ginger and the juice [of] [fen]nel with wine, and let it stand by the fenell, and serve it forth.
Peris in Comfytt. Recipe perys & payr þam clene; take gode rede wyne & mulberys or sawndyrs. Seth þe parys þerin, & whan þai bene sodyn wele take þam vp & make a syrup of vernage or of oþer swete wyne, with blawnchyd powdyr or with sugur, & do þerto þe peres, & serof. Pears in Comfit. Gather pears and pare them clean; take good red wine and mulberries or saunders. Seethe the pears therein, and when they are well boiled take them up and make a syrup of vernage or of other sweet wine, with blanched powder or with sugar, and put thereto the pears, and serve.

Vernage - A sweet wine from Italy, especially Venice.
Lewis, Robert E., Middle English Dictionary, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 1998

Tarts on Fysh Dayes. Recipe & perbole onȝuns with erbs, & pres oute þe wawtyr & chop þam small. Take egges & do þerto powder of saferon & salt & rasyns of curans, & aley it with sugyr & powdyre dauce, & put it in a pastre & bake it, & serof it forth. Tarts on Fish Days. Gather and parboil onions with herbs, and press out the water and chop them small. Take eggs and put thereto powder of saffron and salt and raisins of currants, and mix it with sugar and sweet powder, and put it in a pastry and bake it, and serve it forth. Powdyre dauce – poudre douce – sweet powder – give typical recipe from same time and area
Rysshellis of Frute. Recipe figis & rasyns & wesh þam in wyne, & pike þam & grind þam with appyls & peres paryd clene, & do þerto powdyre & hole spices; & make it in balls, & fry þam in oyle & serof it forth. Rissoles of Fruit. Gather figs and raisins and wash them in wine, and pick them and grind them with apples and pears pared clean, and put thereto powder and whole spices; and make it in balls, and fry them in oil and serve it forth.

Rysshellis – Rissoles
Constance B. Hieatt, Terry Nutter, Johnna H. Holloway, Concordance of English recipes: thirteenth through fifteenth centuries

Defoyles. Recipe creme of cow mylk or of almondes, & do þerto egges with suger, saferon, & salt; & mell it togyder & do it in a coffyn of .ij. ynche depe & bake it. Defoyles. Gather cream of cow milk or of almonds, and put thereto eggs with sugar, saffron, and salt; and mix it together and put it in a coffin of 2 inches deep and bake it. Foyles: from Fr feuilles – leaves
For to bake a Gournard. ȝe schall make a coffyn o[f] þe same lenthe þat þe gurnard is on, safe .iij. ynche or .iiij. þat ȝe sall turne it of þe gurnards tayle. ȝe schal ly his bely vpward, & put þerin rasyns of corans with peper & clowis & iij sponefull of rumney or oþer wyne, & if ȝe wyll, put in his bely a fresh ele. For to bake a Gurnard. You shall make a coffin o[f] the same length that the gurnard is on, save 3 inch or 4 that you shall turn it off the gurnards tail. You shall lay his belly upward, and put therein raisins of currants with pepper and cloves and 3 spoonful of Roman or other wine, and if you will, put in his belly a fresh eel.
Creme of Almonds. Recipe & blawnch almondes, & grinde þam & kepe þam als whyte as ȝe mey, & temper it thyk with watur & draw it, & put it in a pott. And sett it oure þe fyre & styr it wele; and when it begyns to rise take it of. If ȝe wyll haue mykyll, þan do a lityll þerto of vinegre & lat it stande a whyle, & take a clene cloth haldyn abrode betwene tiw men, & trast þerin with a ladyl als brode as þe cloth wyll striche towards & froward ay with þe ege of þe ladyll þat ȝe may draw oute all þe watyrs; & þan gedyre it to þe corners togydyrs & hang it vpon a pyn, & let þe water soke oute into a boll; & temper it with whyte wyne, & bruse it with a sawcer tyll it be als softe as ȝe wyll haue it, & serof it forth. Cream of Almonds. Gather and blanch almonds, and grind them and keep them as white as you may, and temper it thick with water and draw it, and put it in a pot. And set it over the fire and stir it well; and when it begins to rise take it off. If you will have plenty, then put a little thereto of vinegar and let it stand a while, and take a clean cloth held abroad between two men, and thrust therein with a ladle as broad as the cloth will stretch towards and from always with the edge of the ladle that you may draw out all the waters; and then gather it to the corners together and hang it upon a pin, and let the water soak out into a bowl; and temper it with white wine, and bruise it with a saucer until it be as soft as you will have it, and serve it forth.
Payne Puredew. Recipe shyves of whyte brede & toste þam; þan take þe ȝolkes of egges & swyng þam, & turn þe brede þerin, & fry it in grece or buttur, & serof it forth. French Bread. Gather slices of white bread and toast them; then take the yolks of eggs and stir them, and turn the bread therein, and fry it in grease or butter, and serve it forth.
Lech Lumbard. Take fayre brawne & wesh it, & seth it tyl euery pece go fro oþer; þan put it in a morter & grind it with almondes; þan take whyte wyne or rede & bole it þerin. Loke als mych as þu wyll haue whyte, put þerto of þe whyte of eyren, & ȝalow take þerto ȝolkys of egges & bete þam wele to gydere, ich be it self. And if þu wylt haue it grene, take it of þe spicer, or els take grene whete þe gress, or els of barly, & grind it small, & tak þerof þe juse & put þerto & þu wyll make it grene. But loke þat isch be sodyn be hymself, & rede in þe same wyse safe colour it with sawnders; but fyrst lay þe whyte beneth þe ȝalow. Ly it þeron & þe grene þerapon, & when þu wylt dress it þu mast kerve it als long & als small as þu wylt. Lumbard Slice. Take fair brawn and wash it, and seethe it until every piece go from other; then put it in a mortar and grind it with almonds; then take white wine or red and boil it therein. Look as much as you will have white, put thereto of the white of eggs, and yellow take thereto yolks of eggs and beat them well together, each by itself. And if you will have it green, take it off the spicer, or else take green wheat of grass, or else of barley, and grind it small, and take thereof the juice and put thereto and you will make it green. But look that each be boiled by himself, and red in the same way save color it with saunders; but first lay the white beneath the yellow. Lay it thereon and the green thereupon, and when you will dress it you must carve it as long and as small as you will. “green wheat of grass” – from context, this is a transcription error, either in the original or in the version that this text was drawn from.
For to make Conys in Hogepoche. Scald hyr, þan hew hyre in gobets all raw & seth hyr in hyr awne grece, & cast þerto ale or wyne a gode cup full, & mynce onȝons small & do þerto, & bole it & serof it forth. For to make Rabbits in Hodgepodge. Scald her, then hew her in gobbets all raw and seethe her in her own grease, and cast thereto ale or wine a good cup full, and mince onions small and put thereto, and boil it and serve it forth.
Jonreye. Recipe bolace & seth þam, & strene þam throgh a cloth, & cast þam in broth; & do whyte grece þerto & gratyd brede & bole it togyder, & alye it with ȝolkes of egges; þan take hony & bole it & cast it þeron, & serof it forth. Jonreye. Gather wild plums and seethe them, and strain them through a cloth, and cast them in broth; and put white grease thereto and grated bread and boil it together, and mix it with yolks of eggs; then take honey and boil it and cast it thereon, and serve it forth.
Sauce Madame. Recipe sauge, percely, ysop & saueray, quyncis, gode perys, & garlic, & put in þe gosse, & sew þe hole agayn þat no grece go oute; & roste it & leye þe grece þat drops fro þe sawce & etc. Sauce Madame. Gather sage, parsley, hyssop and savory, quinces, good pears, and garlic, and put in the goose, and sew the hole again that no grease go out; and roast it and lay the grease that drops from the sauce and etc.
To mend Mete þat is Brynt in þe Pott. Take small bagges .ij. or .iij. & fill þam full of malt, & sew þam fast, & take oute þe mete & put it in a clene pot, & þan hang þe saide bags in þe mete. Say it it touche not þe bothom of þe pot, & lett it seth þerin a gode whyle, & styr it wele, & let it kele. To mend Meat that is Burnt in the Pot. Take 2 or 3 small bags and fill them full of malt, and stew them fast, and take out the meat and put it in a clean pot, and then hang the said bags in the meat. Say it it touch not the bottom of the pot, and let it seethe therein a good while, and stir it well, and let it cool.
Mete of Lyfe. Recipe sodyn wardons or rostyd, & pike of þe skyn; þen take fayre marow & creme of almonds & put it in a cofyn of past, & mess þerwith mynced datis, powdyre of canell, sugyre & rasyns of corans, powdyre of gynger, & þan lat it bake. Meat of Life. Gather boiled wardens or roasted, and pick off the skin; then take fair marrow and cream of almonds and put it in a coffin of paste, and serve therewith minced dates, powder of cinnamon, sugar and raisins of currants, powder of ginger, and then let it bake. Wardens – baking pears
Cenellis. Recipe braynes of calvis heds or piges heds & put it in a pan or in a pott; & put þerto raw eggs & peper, saferon & vinegre, & stir it wele tyl it be thyk, & serof it forth. Cenellis. Gather brains of calves heads or pigs heads and put it in a pan or in a pot; and put thereto raw eggs and pepper, saffron and vinegar, and stir it well until it be thick, and serve it forth.
Mawmeny. Recipe brawne of capons or of hennys & dry þam wele, & taise þam small; þan take thyk mylk of almonds & put þe saide brawne þerto, & styr it wele ouer þe fyre, & seson it with suger & powder of canell, with mase & quibibs & anneys in confete, & serof it forth. Chicken Stew. Gather brawn of capons or of hens and dry them well, and tease them small; then take thick milk of almonds and put the said brawn thereto, and stir it well over the fire, and season it with sugar and powder of cinnamon, with mace and cubebs and anise in comfit, and serve it forth.
To seth a Tench. Schla hym in the tale & let hym blede to dede, & skald hym in in hote water, & rub it with a cloth till he be clene; & take ale & water & salt & make a sharp sauce, & splat it & lat it kele; & lay it in a chaergeoure, an cast vinegre & powdere of peper, percely & saferon with onȝons, & serof. To seethe a Tench. Slay him in the tail and let him bleed to dead, and scald him in hot water, and rub it with a cloth until he is clean; and take ale and water and salt and make a sharp sauce, and split it and let it cool; and lay it in a charger, and cast vinegar and powder of pepper, parsley and saffron with onions, and serve.
To make a Syrop of Wardons. Recipe wardons & seth þam til þai be softe in clene water, or cast þam in a syve & rost þam. Pyl þam & shere þam in resonabyl byg pecis; þan take rede wyne or swete wyn or whyte wyne or gode ale, sugur & pressyd hony & bole it, & take powdyr of gynger & canell & cast it þerin boylyng, & annis in confyt; & when it is sodyn cast in þi wardons & serof it forth. To make a Syrup of Wardens. Gather wardens and seethe them until they are soft in clean water, or cast them in a sieve and roast them. Peel them and shear them in reasonably big pieces; then take red wine or sweet wine or white wine or good ale, sugar and pressed honey and boil it, and take powder of ginger and cinnamon and cast it therein boiling, and anise in comfit; and when it is boiled cast in the wardens and serve it forth.
For to make Jowtis. Recipe many erbis, & hake & boyle þam tenderly, & þan take þam oute of the pot & cast þam on a dressour, & press oute þe water & hew þam small, & bray þam with gratyd brede; þan take clere broth of caponis or of pestels of pork or of befe, & alay it vp þerwith, & boyle it till it be sothen enogh. For to make Jowtis. Gather many herbs, and hack and boil them gently, and then take them out of the pot and cast them on a sideboard, and press out the water and hew them small, and grind them with grated bread; then take clear broth of capons or of pestles of pork or of beef, and mix it up therewith, and boil it until it be seethed enough.
Movn Amy. Recipe creme of cow mylk & boyle it, þan take it of & kele it; þan take swete raw cruds & press oute þe cruds of wey & bray þam, & cast þam in þe same creme & boyle all togydere, and put þerto sugur and saferon, buttur; þan take ȝolkes of egges strened & betyn, & in þe settyng downe cast in þe ȝolkes þerto, & stire it, & lat þat potage be standyng; & dress it in .v. or .vj. lechys in a dysh and plant it with floure of violets, & serof it forth. My Friend. Gather cream of cow milk and boil it, then take it off and cool it, then take sweet raw curdles and press out the curdles of whey and grind them, and cast them in the same cream and boil all together, and put thereto sugar and saffron, butter; then take yolks of eggs strained and beaten, and in the setting down cast in the yolks thereto, and stir it, and let that pottage be thick; and dress it in 5 or 6 slices in a dish and plant it with violet flowers, and serve it forth. Movn Amy – French Mon ami
Elus Bakyn in Dyshes. Recipe eles, & cowche þam in a dysh, & cast on salt & saferon & powdyre of pepyr, & couer þat dysh with anoþer dysh & set it on þe coles, & turn þe dysh aboute and put in a lityll wyne in þe fyrst tyrne for savyng of þe vessell, & put þe hote coles in a hole in þe erth & so lat it boyle, & serof it forth. Eels Baked in Dishes. Gather eels, and couch them in a dish, and cast on salt and saffron and powder of pepper, and cover that dish with another dish and set it on the coals, and turn the dish about and put in a little wine in the first turn for saving of the vessel, and put the hot coals in a hole in the earth and so let it boil, and serve it forth.
Papyns. Recipe clene cow mylk, & take þe flour of rice or of whete & draw þe flour with sum of þe mylk, & colour it with saferon & let it boyle, & do a lityll hony þerto; þan tak water & well it in a frying panne; þan cast in brokyn egges & fry þam hard in þe water, & lay .iij. in a dysh & þe colourd mylk þeron, & serof it forth. Food. Gather clean cow milk, and take the flour of rice or of wheat and draw the flour with some of the milk, and color it with saffron and let it boil, and put a little honey thereto; then take water and well it in a frying pan; then cast in broken eggs and fry them hard in the water, and lay 3 in a dish and the colored milk thereon, and serve it forth.
Creme. Recipe swete creme of cow mylk & ȝolkes of egges, & draw þam throgh a cloth; þan do it in þe creme & set it on þe fyre & well þam togyder; þan take saferon & hony with a lityll fayre buttur & let þam boyle tyll þai be standyng, & dress .iij. or .iiij. in a dysh & serof. Cream. Gather sweet cream of cow milk and yolks of eggs, and draw them through a cloth; then put it in the cream and set it on the fire and well them together; then take saffron and honey with a little fair butter and let them boil until they are thick, and dress 3 or 4 in a dish and serve.
Caudell Farce. Recipe whyte wyne or rede, & take egg yolkes & draw þam throgh a cloth with þe same wyne; þan put þerto hony & colour it with saferon, & set it oure þe fyre & styr it wele, & whan it is in poynt to welle set it of & let it be standyng & serof. Caudle Stuffing. Gather white wine or red, and take egg yolks and draw them through a cloth with the same wine; then put thereto honey and color it with saffron, and set it over the fire and stir it well, and when it is ready set it of and let it be thick and serve.
Soppus Dorre. Recipe myncyd myncyd onyons & fry þam in oyle de olyff, þan take wyne & boyle with þe onyons; þan toste brede & do it in disshys, & gode almond mylk, & serof. Golden Sops. Gather minced onions and fry them in oil of olive then take wine and boil with the onions then toast bread and put it in dishes and good almond milk and serve
Potage of Rice. Recipe rice, & pike þam & wash þam clene, & seth þam to þai breste; þan lat þam kele & cast þerto almond mylke, & do þerto a lityll porcyon of wyne, anoþer of hony, and colour it with saferon, & boyle it & serof it forth. Pottage of Rice. Gather rice, and pick them and wash them clean, and seethe them until they burst; then let them cool and cast thereto almond milk, and put thereto a little portion of wine, another of honey, and color it with saffron, and boil it and serve it forth.
Gelis of Mylk. Recipe gode almond mylk or swete cow mylk, & colour it wele with saferon; þan take wastell brede & cut it on small pecis, & set mylk on þe fyre, & when it is in poynt to seth cast þe brede þerin & let it bole, & serof. Jellies of Milk. Gather good almond milk or sweet cow milk, and color it well with saffron; then take fine wheat bread bread and cut it on small pieces, and set milk on the fire, and when it is in point to seethe cast the bread therein and let it boil, and serve.
Mortrows of Wylkys. Recipe & boyle þam wele, & dight þam clene & wash þam in water & salt, & grynde þam in a morter & draw þam throgh a strenȝour with gode almond mylk; & do þam in a fayre pot, & cast in grated brede, salt & saferon & boyle it vp, & cast on powder of gynger & serof. Mortreues of Whelks. Gather and boil them well, and put them clean and wash them in water and salt, and grind them in a mortar and draw them through a strainer with good almond milk; and put them in a fair pot, and cast in grated bread, salt and saffron and boil it up, and cast on powder of ginger and serve.
Ryce Moyes. Recipe ryce, & wash þam & bray þam wele, & cast þerto almond mylk, sugar & salt, & serof it forth. Rice Moyes. Gather rice, and wash them and grind them well, and cast thereto almond milk, sugar and salt, and serve it forth.
Oysters in Brewete. Recipe ostyrs, & shell þam & seth þam in clene water. Grind peper & saferon, brede & ale, & temper it with þe broth of þe ostyrs þerin, & boyle it & cast in salt, & serof it forth. Oysters in Brewet. Gather oysters, and shell them and seethe them in clean water. Grind pepper and saffron, bread and ale, and temper it with the broth of the oysters therein, and boil it and cast in salt, and serve it forth.
Elis in Brewette. Recipe elis, & cut þam in gobyts & seth þam; & grind peper & saferon, mynt, percely, brede & ale, & temper it with þe broth, & bole it & serof. Eels in Brewet. Gather eels, and cut them in gobbets and seethe them; and grind pepper and saffron, mint, parsley, bread and ale, and temper it with the broth, and boil it and serve.
Blawnk de Surre. Recipe egg ȝolkes soden hard, & comyn, saferon, & flour of ryce or wastell brede, & grind it in a morter & temper it vp with þe mylk of a cow, & make it to boyl; & do þerto whyte of þe eggs, & cut þam small, & take faet chese & cut it þerto, & when it hath boyld serof. White of Surrey. Gather egg yolks boiled hard, and cummin, saffron, and flour of rice or fine wheat bread, and grind it in a mortar and temper it up with the milk of a cow, and make it to boil; and put thereto white of the eggs, and cut them small, and take fat choose and cut it thereto, and when it has boiled serve.
Tarts of Appyls. Recipe gode appyls & gode spyces, fygis & rasyns, peris; & bray þam, & colour þam with saferon, & do þam in a coffyn & bake þam wele & serof. Tarts of Apples. Gather good apples and good spices, figs and raisins, pears; and grind them, and color them with saffron, and put them in a coffin and bake them well and serve.
Appylmoes. Recipe & seth appyls, & frete þam throgh a cloth, & do þam in a pot, & cast þerto almond mylk with gode broth of flesh dayes, & put þerto gratyd brede & seth it; & put þerto whyte grece on þe flesh day & on þe fysh day oyle de olyfe, & do þerto sugur, & colour it with saferon, & strewe þerin gynger, & serof it forth. Applesauce. Gather and seethe apples, and fret them through a cloth, and put them in a pot, and cast thereto almond milk with good broth of flesh days, and put thereto grated bread and seethe it, and put thereto white grease on the flesh day and on the fish day oil of olive, and put thereto sugar, and color it with saffron, and strew therein ginger, and serve it forth. Appylmoes – Dutch “appelmoes”
Ostyrs in Gravy. Recipe ostyrs, & shell þam & seth þam in wyne or in watur; grind þam & draw þam vp with þe brothe, & alay it with þe flour of ryce, & do þerto þe ostyrs; & cast þerto powdyr of gynger, sugur, maces, quibibs, salt, & seth it to it be standyng & serof. Oysters in gravy. Gather oysters, and shell them and seethe them in wine or in water; grind them and draw them up with the broth, and mix it with the flour of rice, and put thereto the oysters; and cast thereto powder of ginger, sugar, mace, cubebs, salt, and seethe it to it be thick and serve.
Mortrows on Fysh Dayes. Recipe codlyng & hadoc with þe lyver, & seth þam wele in water, & pike oute þe bones & grind þe fysh small. Draw a lyre of almondes & brede with þe fysh broth, & do þerto þe gronden fysh, strewing powdyr, saferon & salt, & make it standyng & serof. Mortreues on Fish Days. Gather codling and haddock with the liver, and seethe them well in water, and pick out the bones and grind the fish small. Draw a layer of almonds and bread with the fish broth, and put thereto the ground fish, strewing powder, saffron and salt, and make it thick and serve.
Rasyns o[n/f] Fysh Dayes. Recipe almonds, & wash þam clene & grinde þam, & draw þam vp with fayr water. Seth it, alay it vp with rasyns; cast þerto salt, saferon & sugur; mese it forth & florych it with solyaundres & serof. Raisins on Fish Days. Gather almonds, and wash them clean and grind them, and draw them up with fair water. Seethe it, mix it up with raisins; cast thereto salt, saffron and sugar; serve it forth and flourish it with saunders and serve. See also: The Forme of Cury / 129 Ryse of fische daye
Saborsawce. Recipe reysyns, & grind þam with crostes of brede, & temper it with wyne; & do þerto powder & salt, & seth it wele, & fry rochys or loches or solis or oþer gode fyshes, & cast þe sawce þeron & serof. Sober Sauce. Gather raisins, and grind them with crusts of bread, and temper it with wine; and put thereto powder and salt, and seethe it well, and fry rochets or loaches or soles or other good fishes, and cast the sauce thereon and serve.
To make a Froyse. Recipe vele, & seth it & hak it wele, & grind peper & saferon & brede & do þerto, & fry it & press it vpon a bord. To make a Froise. Gather veal, and seethe it and hack it well, and grind pepper and saffron and bread and put thereto, and fry it and press it upon a table.
Flawnes. Recipe past makd in coffyns & fyll þam full of blanchyd almounds mylk, & cast þerin powder of gynger, safran & salt; þan bake & serof it forth. Flans. Gather paste made in coffins and fill them full of blanched almond’s milk, and cast therein powder of ginger, saffron and salt; then bake and serve it forth.
Quynces in Composte. Recipe fayre quynces & payr þam clene, & cut þam oute þe kyrnyls; þan tak sugur enogh & a lityll powdyre of gynger. Stop þe hole full; & þan make rownde cophyns & close .iij. or .iiij. in a cophyn, & let it bake; & els take clarifyed hony in stede of sugur; & serof. Quinces in Compot. Gather fair quinces and pare them clean, and cut out their kernels; then take sugar enough and a little powder of ginger. Stop the hole full; and then make round pie crusts and close 3 or 4 in a pie crust, and let it bake; and else take clarified honey instead of sugar; and serve.
To bake a Lawmpray. Recipe & make a rownd cophyn of past; þan tak a fresh lawmpray & lat hym blode. þan take brown brede and stepe it in vynegre, & lat þe lawmpray dy in his awn blode, & strene þe brede & þe vinegre; þan take þe blode & powdyr of canell, & cast þerto til it browne, & cast þerto powder of peper & salt, & wyne, a lityl, þat it be not to strong of þe vinegre; & skald þe lawmpray & payr hym clene, & cowch hym in þe cophyn & couer it with a lyd safe a lityl hole. At þe hole blow in with þi mowth a gode blast of wynd, & sodainely stop þe hole [þ]at þe wynd may abide þerin, & rayse vp þe cophyn þat it fall not down; & when it is a lityll hard prik it, & lat it bake enogh, & serof of it forth cold; & when þe lawmpray is enogh tak it oute of þe owen. To bake a Lamprey. Gather and make a round pie crust of paste; then take a fresh lamprey and let him bleed. Then take brown bread and steep it in vinegar, and let the lamprey die in his own blood, and strain the bread and the vinegar; then take the blood and powder of cinnamon, and cast thereto until it brown, and cast thereto powder of pepper and salt, and wine, a little, that the vinegar is not too strong; and scald the lamprey and pear him clean, and couch him in the pie crust and cover it with a lid save a little hole. At the hole blow in with the mouth a good blast of wind, and suddenly stop the hole that the wind may abide therein, and raise up the pie crust that it fall not down; and when it is a little hard prick it, and let it bake enough, and serve of it forth cold; and when the lamprey is enough take it out of the oven. See also: Harleian MS. 279 / Lamprays bake
Soppis Dorre. Recipe mylk & boyle it, & strene egges ȝolks & put þam þerto; þan set it ouer þe fyre, but lat it not boyle, & þen styr it wele tyll it be thyk, & cast þerto sugur & salt. þan take fayr paynemane & make it in sopis, & put þe stuff above þeron, & serof it forth in þe maner of potage. Golden Sops. Gather milk and boil it, and strain eggs yolks and put them thereto; then set it over the fire, but let it not boil, and then stir it well until it be thick, and cast thereto sugar and salt. Then take fair finest bread and make it in sops, and put the stuff above thereon, and serve it forth in the manner of pottage.
Buknade. Recipe blawnched almondes & grind þam, & draw þam throgh a streneȝour with gode fresh broth & wyne. And þan take vele, kyd, henne, pike, & perboile hym in fresh broth, & cast þerto clows, maces, & gode erbis, & let it boyle enogh, & cast þerto a lityl sugur, gynger, & salt, & serof it forth. Buknade. Gather blanched almonds and grind them, and draw them through a strainer with good fresh broth and wine. And then take veal, kid, hen, pike, and parboil him in fresh broth, and cast thereto cloves, mace, and good herbs, and let it boil enough, and cast thereto a little sugar, ginger, and salt, and serve it forth. See also: Harleian MS. 279 / Vele, kede, or henne in Bokenade
Muskyls in Gravy. Recipe muskyls, & pike þam clene & seth þam oute of þe shells; þan draw þam throgh a streneȝour & set þam oure þe fyre; þan take fayr brede & stepe it in þe same broth; þen put þerto mynced onȝons, wyne & peper, þan boyle þam togyder & cast þerto gynger & saferon & salt & serof. Mussels in gravy. Gather mussels, and pick them clean and seethe them out of the shells; then draw them through a strainer and set them over the fire; then take fair bread and steep it in the same broth; then put thereto minced onions, wine and pepper, then boil them together and cast thereto ginger and saffron and salt and serve.
Storgeon in Broth. Recipe fresh storgeon; perboyle it in fayr water & chop it small, & strene þe broth with a streneȝour in to a pot, & pyke clene þat fysh, & cast þerto small mynced onȝons, peper & clows, macis & canell; & take fayr brede & stepe it in þe same licoure, & draw it with a streneȝour, & let it boyle to gydere, & cast þerto powdyr of gynger, vinagre, & saferon & salt, & serof. Sturgeon in Broth. Gather fresh sturgeon; parboil it in fair water and chop it small, and strain the broth with a strainer into a pot, and pick clean that fish, and cast thereto small minced onions, pepper and cloves, mace and cinnamon; and take fair bread and steep it in the same liquor, and draw it with a strainer, and let it boil together, and cast thereto powder of ginger, vinegar, and saffron and salt, and serve.
To rost Mylk. Recipe swete mylk & do it in a pan, & swyng egges þerwith, & colour it with saferon & put þerto flour; þan set it on þe fyre & let it boyle, & strene all þise to gydyr & cast it agayn into þe pan. þen take hard ȝolkes of egges & breke þam small, & do þam in þe mylk tyll it be right thyk. þen set it down & let it kele, & lech it & roste it on a gyrdyren, & cast þerto sugur, & serof it forth. To roast Milk. Gather sweet milk and put it in a pan, and stir eggs therewith, and color it with saffron and put thereto flour, then set it on the fire and let it boil, and strain all this together and cast it again into the pan. Then take hard yolks of eggs and break them small, and put them in the milk until it is quite thick. Then set it down and let it cool, and slice it and roast it on a gridiron, and cast thereto sugar, and serve it forth.
Frutowr for Lentyn. Recipe flour & almondes mylk, & temper þam togyder; þan take fyges & rasyns of corance & fry þam with þe batour with oyle & tyrne [þis] & serof. Fritter for Lent. Gather flour and almond's milk, and temper them together, then take figs and raisins of currants and fry them with the batter with oil and turn this and serve.
Letards. Recipe mylk & egges & swyng þam togyder, & take fresh pork sodyn wele & cut it on small pecis, & cast it þerin & set it on þe fyre, & let it boyle, & styre it wele till it wrap in a crud; þan lech it & lay it on a gyrdyron & roste it. But aftyr þe foresaide sethyng let it bole, & breke it as it is aforesaide, & sesyn it vp with sugur & serof it forth with þe frotows. Letards. Gather milk and eggs and stir them together, and take fresh well-boiled pork and cut it in small pieces, and cast it therein and set it on the fire, and let it boil, and stir it well until it curdles; then slice it and lay it on a gridiron and roast it. But after the aforesaid seething let it boil, and break it as it is aforesaid, and season it up with sugar and serve it forth with the scrapings.
Melesade. Recipe egges, & strene þam with buttur, & gedyr it togyder with a sklise þe brede of a dyshe, & cowche þerin morsells of brede apon þe egges, & turne þe brede donwards in þe pan & cast þerto sugur, & serof it forth. Melesade. Gather eggs, and strain them with butter, and gather it together with a slice the bread of a dish, and couch therein morsels of bread upon the eggs, and turn the bread downwards in the pan and cast thereto sugar, and serve it forth.
To Clarify Hony. Recipe hony, & do it in a pot, & cast þerto clere of egges with a lityl watur, & bete it wele togydyr with a stik & set it on þe fyre, & boyle it; þan set it downe & let it kele, & when it is almost cold take of þe whyte with a sklise & serof it forth. To Clarify Honey. Gather honey, and put it in a pot, and cast thereto clear of eggs with a little water, and beat it well together with a stick and set it on the fire, and boil it; then set it down and let it cool, and when it is almost cold take of the white with a slice and serve it forth. clear of eggs – uncooked egg whites
Lete Lorre. Recipe egges & strene þam throgh a streneȝour, & do þerto cow mylk & buttur & saferon, & seth it welle & mak it stondyng; & colour it with saferon, & serof it forth. Fat Milk. Gather eggs and strain them through a strainer, and put thereto cow milk and butter and saffron, and seethe it well and make it thick, and color it with saffron, and serve it forth. Lete Lorre – French Lait Lard = Fat Milk Constance B. Hieatt, Terry Nutter, Johnna H. Holloway, Concordance of English recipes: thirteenth through fifteenth centuries
To Claryfy Butter. Recipe fayr fresh water, als mych water in quantyte as buttur; set þe watur on þe fyre in a fayr pan & loke þer be no smoke, & when þe water is ny hote put in þe buttur & take a fayr sklyse & styr it wele unto þe tyme þe water begyn to walme; þan take & sette fro þe fyre & skom it clene; þen let it stonde tyl it be nye cold. þan put it in a basyn with a lityll watur & poure þe saide buttur from þat hote water, & salt it; & þis butter ȝe schull kepe on warandise .iij. or .iiij. ȝere, & kepe it cold & close. To Clarify Butter. Gather fair fresh water, as much water in quantity as butter; set the water on the fire in a fair pan and look there be no smoke, and when the water is nearly hot put in the butter and take a fair slice and stir it well until the time the water begins to warm; then take and set from the fire and skim it clean; then let it stand until it be nigh cold. Then put it in a basin with a little water and pour the said butter from that hot water, and salt it; and this butter you shall keep on reliably 3 or 4 years, and keep it cold and close.
To make Char de Crabb. Recipe crabbs & seth þam in watur tyll þai be softe, & take hony & strene þe crabbs þerwith throgh a cloth. Put to a iijd part of claryfyed hony & a quantyte of sawndyrs, & colour it with saforun; þen put þerto a quantyte of powdyr of peper & ij d worth of þe flour of anneys & a quantyte of powdyre of licorys. þen take grated brede & mold it vp þerwith, & put it in cophyns & serof it forth, & bene facis. Quod Don Thomas Awkbarow. To make Meat of Crab. Gather crabs and seethe them in water until they are soft, and take honey and strain the crabs therewith through a cloth. Put to a third part of clarified honey and a quantity of saunders, and color it with saffron; then put thereto a quantity of powder of pepper and 2 pence worth of the flour of anise and a quantity of powder of licorice. Then take grated bread and mold it up therewith, and put it in pie crusts and serve it forth, and “I am obliged to you.” Said Don Thomas Awkbarow.


Austin, Thomas (ed), Two fifteenth-century cookery-books, Early English Text Society, 1888 (
Evans, Dyfed Lloyd, Main Course Nowmbyls of Muskyls (Mussels in Almond Milk Sauce), Celtnet, 2005–2011 (
Hieatt, Constance B. "The Middle English Culinary Recipes in MS Harley 5401: An Edition and Commentary." Medium Ævum vol. 65, no. 1 (1996): 54-71.
Hieatt, Constance B.; Nutter, Terry; Holloway, Johnna H., Concordance of English recipes: thirteenth through fifteenth centuries
Lewis, Robert E., Middle English Dictionary, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 1998
Matterer, James L., A Boke of Gode Cookery, 2000 (
Medieval Cookery, 2010 (
Millett, Bella, Notes on translating Middle English, Wessex Parallel WebTexts, 2008 (
Moule, Thomas, Heraldry of Fish: Notices of the Principal Families Bearing Fish in Their Arms, John van Voorst, 1842, London
Pegge, Samuel, The Forme of Cury, 1390 (
Porter, Noah (ed), Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G & C. Merriam Co., 1913
Stratmann, Francis Henry, A Middle-English dictionary, The Clarendon Press, 1891
vander Noot, Thomas, EEn notabel boecxken van cokeryen (
Wright, Thomas, Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial English, H. G. Bohn, 1857


“Ȝe” should be read as “ye.” It was spelled with the letter yogh. Originally a form of the letter g used in Anglo-Saxon MSS, it was specialized in the Middle English period to represent a variety of sounds: 1) the sound of MnE y consonant: 3ow ‘you’, eȝe ‘eye’ 2) the sounds represented (though we no longer pronounce them) by MnE gh: nyȝt ‘night’ (pronounced as in German Ich), noȝt ‘nought’ (pronounced as in Scottish loch) 3) (rarely) the sound represented by MnE z. The upper-case form is a larger version of the lower-case form. Likewise, “þe” should be read as “the.” It is spelled with the letter thorn.
Notes on translating Middle English